At Vincere Health we use the latest and most advanced local cryostimulation technology, namely the Metrum Cryo-T Elephant. The Cryo-T Elephant device use nitrogen liquid vapour of which the gas temperature at the outlet of the nozzle can range from -120 to -196 degrees to reach the correct skin and tissue temperature between 2 and 7 degrees within 4 minutes. In addition, the Cryo-T Elephant has a unique safety feature. Sensors are placed inside the application nozzle to allow for remote measurement and to maintain the correct temperature and to ensure optimal physiological and therapeutic effects, while avoiding overcooling and unwanted frostbite.
It is important to note that although the clinical application of ice or an ice pack is recommended for inflammatory conditions such as for swelling and acute localized pain, local ice appliedDOES NOT elicit the same and desired physiological responses in the human body as cryostimulation.
The local cryostimulation applied to the musculoskeletal tissue reach the desired cryogenic temperature within 4 minutes and the resulting physiological and therapeutic effects of strong pain relieving, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, with subsequent enhanced healing capability and recovery of injured tissue and exercise-induced muscle damage. Also, new exciting research show that cold stress may, in addition to producing a neuroprotective effect, enhance nerve injury recovery and regeneration by way of including up-regulation of cold shock proteins RBM3 (RNA binding motif 3).
Local cryostimulation induce thermoregulation that result in the excitation of sympathetic adrenergic fibres, the desired vasoconstriction that cause tissue ischemia below detrimental levels and the significant decrease in nerve conduction velocity of pain fibres.
Pain is reduced and pain threshold and tolerance are increased, in addition by way of the pain gate theory and the up-regulation and down-regulation of the respective gene expressions. Furthermore, the cryostimulation-induced cold exposure may result in the release of strong pain relieving, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant endogenous hormones and substances, including noradrenaline from both the peripheral nerve endings and brainstem nuclei in the brain. Then, also by way of descending pain modulation mechanisms produce substantial pain relief.
The subsequent parasympathetic excitation and increased local hyperaemia enrich cells of the treated tissue with increased oxygen, enzymes and nutrients to a much greater degree than under normal, balanced conditions. As a result, the desired intensified metabolic processes and the reduced joint and muscle soreness and tension are achieved. Studies have confirmed that the thermoregulation processes induced by local cryostimulation are safe and well tolerable by the human body.
Inflammation is a necessary protective defence mechanism of the human being against injury and infection. The inflammatory response function to localize and eliminate the injurious agent, protect the injured tissue from further damage and to remove damaged tissue components, so that the body can heal itself. Studies have shown that excessive and chronic inflammation, in addition to oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology (cause) of inflammatory joint diseases and other musculoskeletal disorders, including osteoporosis, as well as in exercise induced -muscle soreness and muscle damage .
Studies support the empirical evidence that cryostimulation can cause a significant decrease in inflammatory serum marker C-reactive protein and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor and histamine. Also cryostimulation can cause a remarkable higher production and release of the anti-inflammatory profile, including interleukin-6 and interleukin-10, by way of in addition intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and prostaglandin E2.
The aberrant inflammatory process and the possible formation of oedema and subsequent arthrogenic muscle inhibition are attenuated, and protein degradation is limited. The cryostimulation may allow more movement to take place in the inflamed and painful joint and spine, resulting in increased muscle flexibility and range of motion , increased active muscle power and enhanced and facilitated physical therapy and rehabilitation.
Free radicals are toxic by-products of oxygen metabolism that can cause severe damage to living cells and tissues in a process known as oxidative stress. Studies have shown that oxidative stress, in addition to increased inflammation, play a vital role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory joint diseases and other musculoskeletal disorders, including osteoporosis. Furthermore, vigorous exercise may cause and contribute to aberrant oxidative stress and produce detrimental effects on muscle tissue. An antioxidant can decrease the production of free radicals by inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules and provide protection to cells from the detrimental effects of oxidation.
Cryostimulation, similar to winter swimmers can cause a significant decrease in oxidative stress and an increase in anti-oxidative buffering capacities. Studies support the empirical evidence that cryostimulation can cause a remarkable increase in the total antioxidant status, total oxidative index, increase in the total antioxidant status activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and non-enzymatic antioxidants including uric acid. Subsequently, the cryostimulation may increase the free radical reactions and the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species with the resulting enhanced antioxidant responses and favourable compensatory adaptation changes.
Rheumatic and musculoskeletal conditions comprise over 150 diseases and progressive syndromes, which are amongst the most widespread painful and disabling pathologies across the globe. Among those with the greatest impact on society are osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic inflammatory joint-autoimmune disease. These diseases, in particular osteoarthritis, can no longer be simply labelled as “degenerative” diseases. Growing evidence supports a role of inflammation, not only locally, in promoting damage to joints and bones, as well as joint-related functional deficits.
Cryostimulation has been shown to decrease pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 with decrease in pain, decrease in disease activity and improve functional outcomes in individuals suffering from active inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. Also, cryostimulation has been shown to produce long-term effects of including decreasing pain, decreasing disease activity and improving functional outcomes in individuals suffering from chronic inflammatory arthritis, including rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.
Cryostimulation substantially decrease the frequency and degree of pain perception and the use of pain killers, as well as improve the range of physical activity and well-being, in osteoarthritis of the spine and peripheral joints. In addition, the beneficial effects of cryostimulation seen in arthritis of the spine, sciatica and ankylosing spondylitis have been confirmed by means of thermovision. Although osteoarthritis has traditionally been considered as one of the most devastating chronic conditions that affect the middle to old age world population, recent studies have confirmed that osteoarthritis in young, active and athletic individuals are rapidly raising.
Cryostimulation equals 2 weeks of traditional rehabilitation and therapeutic modalities, including kinesiotherapy, magneto-therapy, electrotherapy, ultrasound therapy and laser therapy, to reduce pain, disability and disease activity. Also, cryostimulation with kinesiotherapy is superior to the conventional rehabilitation in reducing pain, decreasing disease activity and improving locomotor (movement) function, as well as with much longer-lasting effects.
Studies have confirmed that cryostimulation can significantly decrease pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor and increase anti-inflammatory interleukin-6 in individuals suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, compared to 4 weeks of the conventional physiotherapy, cryostimulation can remarkably decrease histamine levels, a compound which is released by cells in response to injury and in allergic and inflammatory reactions . New studies show that histamine may play a major pro-inflammatory role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.
Cryostimulation can significantly decrease serum inflammatory markers, decrease total oxidative status and increase total anti-oxidant status. Also, in comparison with kinesiotherapy, cryostimulation can decrease pain twice as much, decrease disease activity and improve functional outcomes and quality of life. Furthermore, cryostimulation with subsequent kinesiotherapy markedly improves spinal mobility in individuals suffering from ankylosing spondylitis. The progression of ankylosing spondylitis can result in fusion of the axial skeleton and a marked loss of physical function and spinal mobility.
cryostimulation can significantly decrease pain and improve functional outcomes in individuals with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) confirmed herniated intervertebral disc. Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation is the most common reason for working-age individuals to undergo lumbar spine surgery. A slipped disc can lead to excruciating referred leg and arm pain.
Cryostimulation can substantially decrease pain and swellings, cause skeletal muscles relaxation and increase muscle power and range of motion in individuals suffering from symptomatic osteoporosis. Low bone density results from altered bone resorption and formation homeostasis and bone turnover. The osteoclast activity surpass osteoblast activity. Typically, there are no symptoms, unless the condition progresses to osteoporosis. Symptoms of osteoporosis include back pain, loss of height, a stooped posture and easily fractured bones.
Cryostimulation may enhance normal and healthy bone turnover in osteopenia and osteoporosis, significantly decreasing the serum bone turnover marker osteocalcin and increase carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen. In addition, studies have shown that cryostimulation can markedly increase remodelling osteoimmunological biomarkers osteoprotegerin and counteracts the altered osteoclast activity with decreased bone resorption and decreased osteolytic disease progression.
New studies have also shown that oxidative stress may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis as well as serves as major aggravating factor for osteopenia, osteoporosis and insufficiency fractures. Antioxidant systems present in the human body prevent oxidative stress, but studies have shown that the antioxidant systems of the human alone may be ineffective to combat the aberrant oxidative stress. Antioxidant therapy could ameliorate the adverse effects of oxidative stress in osteoporosis. Studies support the empirical evidence that cryostimulation can decrease oxidative stress and increase the anti-oxidative buffering capacities in healthy individuals and especially in individuals suffering from musculoskeletal diseases.
Several studies support the empirical evidence that cryostimulation can decrease pain and increase lower pain threshold in individuals suffering from myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia, as well as improve health-reported quality of life in individuals suffering from musculoskeletal-pain disorders. Also, cryostimulation has been shown to decrease pain and disability and increase functional outcomes in frozen shoulder or adhesive capsulitis and migraine headaches. Musculoskeletal disorders are often incorrectly and ineffectively diagnosed and managed in primary care.
Many studies support the empirical evidence that cryostimulation can enhance muscle injury and damage recovery, enhance muscle strength performance recovery, decrease exercise-induced muscle damage and soreness, as well as decrease delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), especially in the highly active individual and more elite-level athlete.
A single cryostimulation treatment-session has been shown to significantly enhance muscle injury recovery time and decrease muscle soreness. Also, cryostimulation markedly enhanced exercise-induced muscle damage recovery with increased strength and decreased pain versus infrared radiation and passive modalities. Studies have also shown that cryostimulation can enhance recovery time in re-establishing homeostasis of serum muscle damage markers, including creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and calcium. In addition, studies have shown that cryostimulation can enhance oxygen delivery in the working muscles, decrease muscle spasticity and increase muscle flexibility and range of motion.